Updating the more democratic pieces of the republican legacy, they posited that no republic could long survive without a citizenry of economically independent men. The years characterized by a struggle for popular rights and the issues and events that informed the development of the second major political party have become known as the Jacksonian era.
Nativism, for example, struck them as a hateful manifestation of elitist puritanism. Jackson said that he would guard against "all encroachments upon the legitimate sphere of State sovereignty".
As perhaps befits a student reference guide but less so a stand-alone monograph, Cheathem does not advance much by way of thesis beyond the familiar commonplaces. There is no great pretense of anything new here, albeit also very little to disagree with. The fiercely partisan campaigns waged between these parties lasted into the s and are known as the Second Party System, an assuredly modern framework of political competition that reached ordinary voters as never before with both sides organizing tirelessly to carry their message directly to the American people.
The debates in Congress reflected two competing visions of federalism. But as early as the mids, during the debates over Texas annexation, the Mexican War, and the Wilmot Provisosectional cleavages had grown ominous.
Not only did he get almost 70 percent of the votes cast in the electoral college, popular participation in the election soared to an unheard of 60 percent.